Data of forest destruction in Indonesia is still confusing, this is due to differences in perception and interest in revealing data about forest destruction. The rate of deforestation in Indonesia according to World Bank estimates between 700,000 to 1.2 million ha per year, where deforestation by shifting cultivators is estimated at half. But the World Bank acknowledged that the estimated rate of deforestation is based on weak data. Meanwhile, according to the FAO, said the rate of forest destruction in Indonesia reached 1.315 million ha per year or a total area of forest annually reduced by one percent (1%). Next >>>

forest destruction


Global deforestation and forest degradation rates have a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that during the 1990s 16.1 million hectares per year were affected by deforestation, most of them in the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that, for the same period, the contribution of land use changes to GHG accumulation into the atmosphere was 1.6±0.8 Gigatonnes of carbon per year, a quantity that corresponds to 25% of the total annual global emissions of greenhouse gases. Under the Kyoto Protoco (KP), industrialized countries can use land-based activities, such as reducing deforestation, establishing new forests (afforestation and reforestation) and other vegetation types, managing agricultural and forestlands in a way that the “carbon sink” is maximized.

Virgin Forest
Natural Forest
Primary Forest
Secondary Forest
Forest Degradation
Accessed Forest
Low Access Forest
Forest Cover
Selective Loging
Production Forest
Protection Forest
Conservation Forest
Conversion Forest
Limited Production Forest
Mangrove Forest
Beach Forest
Swamp Forest
Imperata cylindrica
Forest Burning
Indonesia Forest

Indonesia is experiencing one of the highest rates oftropical forest loss in the world

Forest Concessions
Destructive Logging and Deforestation
Degradation: How much time left?
Palm Oil Industries will never be sustainable
Effects of Indonesia Forest Fire
Tropical Rain Forest
Song of Mangrove
Mangrove Zonation
Mangrove Fauna


Biodiversity and Tropical Forests in Indonesia
Indonesian Biodiversity Patterns

Indonesia’s Marine Environment and
Region Specific Biodiversity

Legislative and Institutional Structure
Affecting Biological Resources

Legislative Basis for Protection and Management of Biodiversity and Forest Resources

Biodiversity Sumatra and Associated Islands
Biodiversity Kalimantan
Biodiversity Java and Associated Islands
Biodiversity Sulawesi
Biodiversity Nusa Tenggara and Maluku
Biodiversity Papua


The importance of forests
Kinds of forests
The life of the forest
The structure of forests
Forest succession
The history of forests
E c o l o g y
Applied Ecology



The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia

Fires in forests impact on; (i) human lives, assets and values; and (ii) ecological processes and ecosystem structure, species composition, age and function.

Managing terrestrial carbon in peatlands

Practical livelihood options Climate related

Sustaining Local Livelihoods through Carbon Sequestration Activities: A search for practical and strategic approach

Carbon sequestration projects through land use, land-use change and forestry

Policy structure of the CDM The CDM is comprised of a set of decisions

Forest Degradation And Alteration Of Rainfall Regime In The Brazilian Amazon

Definition of a Rainforest
Rainforest is an umbrella term describing a broad range of vegetation community types in the Wet Tropics

Practical livelihood options Climate related disasters such as flooding, drought, and fire combined

Kyoto Protocol and beyond, The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only Kyoto mechanism that allows developed and developing countries

Introduction To Trees : Bark : Branch : Trunk : Leaf : Root : Leaf : Seed

Policy structure of the CDM The CDM is comprised of a set of decisions that regulate this instrument

A Short Note on the Social Side of the Modalities and Procedures for Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the CDM

Should We Include Avoidance of Deforestation in the International Response to Climate Change?

A new proposal to include deforestation avoidance in tropical countries

Pros and cons of the proposal It may be argued that the proposal might lead to inclusion of “hot air” in the Kyoto system

Why has deforestation avoidance been excluded to date?

Possible refinements The proposal as currently drafted assumes sale of credits after the emission reduction has been achieved.

Social issues and the CDM The development of the M&P has aimed at elaborating political guidance relevant for the objectives of the CDM.

Engendering climate change

Below-ground carbon storage

Climate change with human face

Carbon Forestry: Who will benefit? forest ecosystems is not only rich in biodiversity and genetic pools but also very important in watershed protection

The potential of oil palm and forest plantations for carbon sequestration on degraded land in Indonesia




What is The Conservation
The importance of conservation
Kinds of conservation
Biodiversity conservation
Kind of Biodiversity
Water conservation
Ocean conservation
Soil conservation
Conservation of grazing lands
Forest conservation
Mineral conservation
Energy conservation



How plants grow
Factors affecting plant growth
How plants reproduce
Parts of plants
L e a f
The importance of leaves
The leaf becomes fully grown
Specialized Leaves
How a leaf makes food
How to Collect Leaves
The Parts of a Flower
Variations in flower structure
The role of flowers in reproduction
Kinds of roots
Root System



The SARS story and the threat of Asian bird ‘flu

Different Types of Cancer?

A Comparison Study of the Anticancerous Activity and Mechanism of Ethanolic Extracts from Different Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma works in the treatment of cancer because it helps cleanse the body from toxins

Ganoderma Butt Rot - Ganoderma zonatum Ganoderma butt rot is a relatively new and lethal disease of Florida palm trees

Multi-year study of Ganoderma aerobiology

Herbal medicine and Alternative medicine

Dietary supplement and Food additive

Homeopathy is a system of medical practice based

Mosquito mating behaviour.
Mating is one aspect of behaviour that has been much ignored in mosquito biology

Malaria is a dangerous parasitic disease common in tropical and subtropical areas.

Decay Development And Its Restriction In Trees.







Many of Indonesia's forests include in Tropical Rain Forest is a complex community whose framework is provided by trees of many sizes. Forest canopy is used as a general one to describe the total plant community above the ground. Within the canopy the microclimate differs from that. outside; there is less light, humidity is higher, and temperature is lower. Many of the smaller trees grow in the shade of the larger ones in the microclimate that these produce. Upon the framework of the tree and within the microclimate of the canopy grow a range of other kinds of plants: climbers, epiphytes, strangling, plants parasites, and saprophytes. The trees and most of the other plants are rooted in the soil and draw nutrients and water from it. Their fallen leaves, twigs, branches, and other parts provide ; food for a host of invertebrate animals, amongst which termites are often important, and for fungi and bacteria. Nutrients are returned to the soil via decay of fallen parts and by leaching from the leaves by rain-water. It is a feature of tropical rain forest that most of the total nutrient store is in the vegetation; relatively little is held in the soil.

mountain forest


Indonesia’s forests are an extraordinary natural phenomenon, of immense value and beauty. Over ten per cent of the planet’s diversity of plants and animals are found only in Indonesia, including orangutan, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, a thousand species of birds, and thousands of plant species. The archipelago is also home to hundreds of indigenous groups who have lived from and managed Indonesia’s forests for thousands of years. The forests provide food, medicines, building materials and clothing fibers, not only for indigenous communities, but also for world markets. Indonesia also possesses more endangered species than any other country in the world largely because of deforestation.



orang utan


tree forest


mangrove forest


illegal logging




Java Tiger

Deforestation in Indonesia has been a massive environmental impact on the country, home to some of the most biologically diverse forests in the world, ranking third behind Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

As late as 1900, Indonesia was still a densely forested country with the total forest representing 84 per cent of the total land area. Deforestation intensified in the 1970s[1] and continuously accelerated since then. As a result, the estimated forest cover of 170 million ha around 1900 decreased to 98 million ha by the end of the 20th century, at least half of which is believed to be degraded by human activity. At present rates, tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be logged out in 10 years.

Large areas of forest in Indonesia are being lost as native forest is cleared by large multi-national pulp companies and being replaced by plantations. Forest are often burned by farmers and plantation owners. Another major source of deforestation is the logging industry, driven by demand from China and Japan.

Agricultural development and transmigration programs moved large populations into rainforest areas, further increasing deforestation rates. Logging and the burning of forests to clear land for cultivation has made Indonesia, the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind China and the United States.

Forest fires often destroy high capacity carbon sinks, including old-growth rainforest and peatlands. In May 2010 Indonesia declared a moratorium on new logging contracts to help combat this.


Indonesia was still densely forested as recently as 1950. Forty percent of the forests existing in 1950 were cleared in the following 50 years. In round numbers, forest cover fell from 162 million ha to 98 million ha.

The rate of forest loss is accelerating. On average, about 1 million ha per year were cleared in the 1980s, rising to about 1.7 million ha per year in the first part of the 1990s. Since 1996, deforestation appears to have increased to an average of 2 million ha per year.

Indonesia’s lowland tropical forests, the richest in timber resources and biodiversity, are most at risk. They have been almost entirely cleared in Sulawesi and are predicted to disappear in Sumatra by 2005 and Kalimantan by 2010 if current trends continue.

Nearly one half of Indonesia’s forests are fragmented by roads, other access routes, and such developments as plantations. Deforestation in Indonesia is largely the result of a corrupt political and economic system that regarded natural resources, especially forests, as a source of revenue to be exploited for political ends and personal gain.  


Logging concessions covering more than half the country’s total forest area were awarded by former President Suharto, many of them to his relatives and political allies. Cronyism in the forestry sector left timber companies free to operate with little regard for long-term sustainability of production.  

As part of the effort to boost Indonesia’s export revenues, and to reward favored companies, at least 16 million ha of natural forest have been approved for conversion to industrial timber plantations or agricultural plantations. In many cases, conversion contradicted legal requirements that such plantations be established only on degraded land or on forest land already allocated for conversion.


Aggressive expansion of Indonesia’s pulp and paper industries over the past decade has created a level of demand for wood fiber that cannot currently be met by any sustainable domestic forest management regime.

Forest clearance by small-scale farmers is a significant but not dominant cause of deforestation. Illegal logging has reached epidemic proportions as a result of Indonesia’s chronic structural imbalance between legal wood supply and demand.

Illegal logging, by definition, is not accurately documented. But a former senior official of the Ministry of Forestry recently claimed that theft and illegal logging have destroyed an estimated 10 million ha of Indonesian forests.


Massive expansion in the plywood, pulp, and paper production sectors over the past two decades means that demand for wood fiber now exceeds legal supplies by 35-40 million cubic meters per year.

This gap between legal supplies of wood and demand is filled by illegal logging. Many wood processing industries openly acknowledge their dependence on illegally cut wood, which accounted for approximately 65 percent of total supply in 2000.


Legal logging is also conducted at an unsustainable level. Legal timber supplies from natural production forests declined from 17 million cubic meters in 1995 to under 8 million cubic meters in 2000, according to recent statistics from the Ministry of Forestry. The decline has been offset in part by timber obtained from forests cleared to make way for plantations. But this source appears to have peaked in 1997.


Industrial timber plantations have been widely promoted and subsidized as a means of supplying Indonesia’s booming demand for pulp and taking pressure off natural forests. In practice, millions of hectares of natural forest have been cleared to make way for plantations that, in 75 percent of cases, are never actually planted.


More than 20 million hectares of forest have been cleared since 1985, but the majority of this land has not been put to productive alternative uses.

Nearly 9 million ha of land, much of it natural forest, have been allocated for development as industrial timber plantations. This land has already been cleared or will be cleared soon. Yet only about 2 million ha have actually been planted with fast-growing species, mostly Acacia mangium, to produce pulpwood. The implication: 7 million ha of former forest land are lying idle.


Nearly 7 million ha of forest had been approved for conversion to estate crop plantations by the end of 1997, and this land has almost certainly been cleared. But the area actually converted to oil palm plantations since 1985 is about 2.6 million hectares, while new plantations of other estate crops probably account for another 1-1.5 million ha. The implication: 3 million ha of former forest land are lying idle.

No accurate estimates are available for the area of forest cleared by small-scale farmers since 1985, but a plausible estimate in 1990 suggested that shifting cultivators might be responsible for about 20 percent of forest loss. This would translate to clearance of about 4 million ha between 1985 and 1997.


The transmigration program that relocated people from densely populated Java to the outer islands was responsible for about 2 million ha of forest clearance between the 1960s and the program’s end in 1999. In addition, illegal migration and settlement by pioneer farmers at the margins of logging concessions, along roads, and even in national parks has greatly accelerated since 1997, but reliable national-scale estimates of forest clearance by forest pioneers have not been made.


Large-scale plantation owners have turned to the use of fire as a cheap and easy means of clearing forest for further planting. Deliberate fire-setting, in combination with unusually dry conditions caused by El Niño events, have led to uncontrolled wildfires of unprecedented extent and intensity. More than 5 million ha of forest burned in 1994 and another 4.6 million ha burned in 1997-98. Some of this land is regenerating as scrubby forest, some has been colonized by small-scale farmers, but there has been little systematic effort to restore forest cover or establish productive agriculture.

The Indonesian Government is facing mounting pressure domestically and internationally to take action, but progress is slow and not all policy reforms in process are necessarily good news for forests.  In the freer political atmosphere that followed the fall of President Suharto in 1998, environmental activists have demanded greater accountability from both the government and the private sector. Access to official information has improved, but efforts to prevent the worst abuses of corporate power have met with limited success.  Numerous forest-dependent communities, sensing the weakening of central power, have erupted violently against logging and plantation operations that they consider to be plundering their local resources.

land tenure rights

Longstanding problems of unclear land tenure rights are the root cause of many such conflicts. The government is no longer willing to protect corporate interests as it once did, but neither does it appear to have any coordinated plan for dealing with the problem. 


Since 1999, Indonesia’s principal aid donors have coordinated their assistance through a consortium called the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), chaired by the World Bank. Improved forest management has been declared a priority, and the Government of Indonesia has committed to a 12-point plan of policy reform. But continuing political turmoil seems likely to undermine these efforts. In April 2001, the then-Forestry Minister acknowledged many failures, saying that Indonesia should not have agreed to “such unrealistic targets.” As one example, the government imposed a moratorium on further conversion of natural forest in May 2000, but the ban is widely disregarded in the provinces.  Indonesia is moving rapidly toward a new system of “regional autonomy,” but the provincial and district governments that will benefit from decentralization are largely without the capacities or funds needed to govern effectively. Raising short-term revenue will be a top priority and, as a result, intensified exploitation of forest resources is already occurring in many regions.








Suksesi Hutan Mangrove Pulau Marsegu
Suksesi tumbuhan adalah penggantian suatu komunitas tumbuh-tumbuhan

Analisis Vegetasi Untuk Pengelolaan Kawasan Hutan Lindung Pulau Marsegu
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur dan komposisi vegetasi

Definisi Hutan Mangrove
Hutan mangrove merupakan suatu tipe hutan yang tumbuh di daerah pasang surut, terutama di pantai yang terlindung,

Vegetation Analysis Intended For The Management Of Marsegu Island Protected Forest
The research aims to observe the structure and composition of forest vegetation communities and the relation with the ecological factors

A Systematic Revision Of The Mangrove Genus Sonneratia
In Australia, New Guinea and the southwestern Pacific seven taxa are recognised in Sonneratia of which three species are redescribed in view of their Indo-Malesian counterparts (S. alba, S. caseolaris, S. ovata),

Conservation And Development Issues: Examples From Venezuela
In Venezuela, a recent presidential decree regulates the protection of mangroves and associated ecosystems in the context of watersheds, prohibiting specific activities such as dredging, land filling and use of biocides,

Ecology of Mangrove Forests
The term mangrove refers to salt-tolerant species of tree or shrub which grow on sheltered shores and in estuaries in the tropics and some sub-tropical regions.

Human Use of Mangrove
Products from mangrove trees include logs, fuelwood, charcoal, wood-chips, paper pulp, scaffold poles, piling and construction material, stakes for fish traps

MANGROVES Non-sustainable uses
Non-sustainable uses lead to loss of the mangrove habitat, and associated losses of shoreline, organic matter production and species dependent on the habitat

Mangrove Conservation
maintenance of ‘reservoirs’ for natural restocking of adjacent exploited areas; protection of breeding and feeding areas important for fisheries;

Ecological Importance of Mangrove Trees The example of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
Mangrove forests most important coastal ecosystems in the world in terms of primary production and coastal protection.

Natural Recovery Of Amazonian Mangrove Forest As Revealed By Brachyuran Crab Fauna
Due to the enormous influence of the Amazon River, accretion and erosion processes alternate in rapid succession on the North coast of South America.

Red Mangrove Eradication in Hawaiian Wetland,
Alien red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and pickleweed (Batis maritima) are major invasive plants

Rehabilitation Of Oil- Damaged Mangroves
When mangroves have been killed by oil there is often a great interest in rehabilitation of the forests based on a desire both to re-establish the important mangrove ecosystems

Fate and Effects of Oil Oil slicks enter mangrove forests when the tide is high, and are deposited on the aerial roots and sediment surface as the tide recedes.

Oil Spill Response
It is generally agreed that mangroves are particularly sensitive to oil and that they are priority areas for protection.

The Restoration, Conservation And Management Of Mangrove
Mangrove wetlands in the coastal states of East Coast of India could be restored and better protected with the involvement of local user communities.

Mangrove carbon sequestration in the Florida Everglades
Mangrove forests represent one of the most geochemically and biologically active biomes yet at present no unified modeling framework exists to investigate processes governing carbon sequestration.

Mangroves of the Caribbean
Mangrove swamps are unique biological environments which occur where land and sea come together. The term “mangrove” refers to vascular plants that have developed physiological mechanisms for living in shallow seawater.

Differences in the Crab Fauna of Mangrove Areas
Existtig paradigms suggest that mangrove leaf litter is processed primarily via the detrital pathway in forests in the Caribbean biogeographic realm whereas herbivorous crabs

Conversion Of Mangrove Forests Into Traditional Brackish Water Ponds
Traditional brackish water ponds have been developed rapidly in the last decade in Tarakan, and have endangered the existing mangrove forest,

Mangrove Restoration Costs and Benefits of Successful Ecological Restoration
The costs to successfully restore both the vegetative cover and ecological functions of a mangrove forest have been reported to range from USD$225/ha to USD$216,000/ha.

Chromosomal Pairing and Pollen Viability in Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora stylosa Hybrids
Two prominent mangrove species of Fiji, Rhizophora mangle, Linn. Rhizophora stylosa Griff and their puative hyubrid (R x selala) were analysed for chromosome number and pairing.

Regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in a Caribbean mangrove forest: interacting effects of canopy disturbance and a stem-boring beetle
Current theory predicts that in low-density, seed-limited plant populations, seed predation will be more important than competition in determining the number of individuals that reach maturity.



Populations and Communities


The effect of anthropogenic habitat usage

Birds of Asia and Africa

Birds of the Seacoasts and Arctic

Birds of inland waters and marshes

Birds of brushy areas and the desert

Birds of grasslands

Birds of forests and woodlands

Birds of North America

Where Animals Live

Animal live throughout the world

Kinds of Animals

The distribution of birds

The importance of birds

Bird is an animal with feathers

Photos: More new species found in Indonesia's 'los...



How a Leaf Makes Food

Specialized Leaves

The leaf becomes fully grown

The Importance of Leaves

Leaves of Plants

Parts of Plants

How Plants Reproduce

Factors Affecting Plant Growth

How Plants Grow

The history of forests


Forest succession

The Structure of Forests

The life of the forest

Kinds of forests

The importance of forests

The importance of plants

Kinds of plywood

Forest Products

How botanists classify fruits

Fruit on the Tree


Asean urges Indonesia to sign pollution pact

Singapore puts heat on Indonesia to take on haze s...

Norwegian Minister for Environment praises Indones...

SBY Vows to Protect Forests

Indonesia’s leader says he will dedicate final yea...

‘Green treasures’ could fuel a new economic sector...

Forest Service letting wildfires burn

Discourse: Indonesia may use Norwegian funds for o...

President calls on businesses to unite to protect ...

Indonesian forest fires

REDD in the news

Indonesia’s forest fire and coal fire cycles

Indonesian forestry: status and trends

Indonesian Forestry: A Regional Context

Long Term Objectives and Goals | Considerable deve...

The Indonesian Economy and the Role of Forestry

MALAYSIA: State of Sarawak Forests: Gov’t Agency ...

Big business leaves big forest footprints

Biodiversity nears 'point of no return'

Economic growth cannot buy the planet more time

Time to think small on climate change

Restoring natural capital in degraded landscapes

Deforestation and forest degradation factors

Palm Oil Threats: Deforestation and Peat Land Degr...

Plantations are not Forests | Greenpeace demands i...

Greenpeace Demands full commitment from Nestlé to ...

Rapid Increases in Tree Growth Found in US

Maya Rise and Fall

What's Happening to Them

Why Rainforests Matter

What is a Rainforest

What is a Rainforest

Forest outcomes from Copenhagen


What can we learn from tropical rainforests?

Environment-Zimbabwe: Future Generations Will 'Inh...

Monitoring a Changing Climate

Land use and biodiversity in northern Thailand

The IUCN Red List web site made easy: a users’ gui...

Learning from nature’s incredible designs

Habitat loss blamed for more species decline

Indonesia and UN Launch Joint Effort to Curb Defor...

ENVIRONMENT: Forests May Depend on Survival of Na...

World deforestation decreases, but remains alarmin...

One man's mission to save Cambodia's elephants

CPF Organizations Discuss Climate Change and Fores...

Alternatives to Slash and Burn Partnership Release...

CIFOR Director General Delivers Keynote on Forests...

Probe Seeks Climate-Panel Changes

Indonesia project boosts global forest CO2 market

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest D...

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest d...

Carbon Mapping Breakthrough

Scots Pine Shows Its Continental Roots

Prescribed Burns May Help Reduce US Carbon Footpri...





Definisi Silvikultur
Pengertian Persemaian
Jenis-Jenis Persemaian
Faktor-Faktor Lingkungan & Pertumbuhan
Unsur Hara Nitrogen (N)
Unsur Hara Fosfor (P)
Unsur Hara Kalium (K)
Bahan Organik Tanah
Kemasaman Tanah (pH Tanah)
Lengas Tanah
Tekstur dan Struktur Tanah
Jenis Tanah
Iklim dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman
Ketinggian Tempat dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman
Kelerengan dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman
Pengaruh Cahaya Terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman
Pengaruh Cahaya Terhadap Diameter dan Tinggi Tanaman
Pengaruh Cahaya Terhadap Ketebalan dan Luas Daun
Pengaruh Cahaya Terhadap Jumlah Klorofil Daun
Pengaruh Cahaya Terhadap Transpirasi
Hormon Tumbuhan
Definisi Benih
Definisi Benih Bermutu
Kendala Penyediaan Benih Bermutu Genetik
Definsi Sumber Benih
Viabilitas Benih
Vigor Benih
Dormansi Benih
Tipe Dormansi Benih
Perlakuan Awal Dormansi Fisik
Metabolisme Perkecambahan
Pengaruh Suhu Selama Penyimpanan Terhadap
Daya Kecambah Benih
Penyimpanan Benih
Periode Simpan Benih
Sistim Perbanyakan Tanaman
Teknik Kultur Jaringan Tanaman Jati
Pemupukan Tanaman
Sifat Botanis dan Penyebaran Pohon Merbau
( Intsia bijuga O.K.)
Pengelolaan Hutan Tanaman
Sistem Silvikultur Hutan Payau
Sistem Tebang Pilih Tanam Jalur (TPTJ)
Daftar Pustaka



Penerapan AMDAL pada Pembangunan di Bidang Kehutanan

Prespektif Silvika Dalam Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Silvikultur

Struktur Hutan Hutan Hujan Tropis adalah suatu masyarakat kompleks

Wisata Alam Pulau Marsegu Kabupaten Seram Bagian Barat Provinsi Maluku

Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan dan Satwa Liar
Indonesia sebagai salah satu negara mega-biodiversity telah memiliki komitmen untuk melestarikan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan satwa liar yang ada secara berkelanjutan

Lebah Madu Hasil Hutan Ikutan dan Ternak Harapan

Mengenal Bambu Dan Manfaatnya Terhadap Konservasi Alam, Konstruksi Dan Kerajinan

Bintangur Pantai (Callophylum inophylum L ) Sumber Bahan Bakar Alternatif dan Manfaat Lainnya.

Kayu Besi Pantai (Pongamia pinnata Merr) Tumbuhan Sumber Bahan Bakar Alternatif

Trichoderma Harzianum Biofungisida yang Ramah Lingkungan

Gaya Hidup Sehat - Kolesterol yang tinggi (hiperkoles-terolemia) memang tidak terlihat dan seringkali tidak bergejala, kecuali dengan melakukan Check Up (periksa darah) secara berkala paling tidak 6 bulan sekali setelah berkonsultasi kesehatan dengan dokter.




email : indonesiaforestpictures@gmail.com