indonesia forest
 
 
 


BEACH FOREST

Beach Forest is sparse forest growing along the beaches and foothills near the shore. Beach forest is composed of Barringtonia sp, Pongamia pinnata, Hisbiscus tiliaceus, Cordia subcordata, Callophylum inopyllum, Casuarina equasetifolia, and Terminalia catappa.

beach forest

Beach forest have two zone : Barringtonia zone and Ipomea pre-caspreae zone :

beach forest

Ipomea pre-caspreae

IPOMEA PRE-CASPREAE

beach forest pictures


beach forest of indonesia


Spinifex littoreus

Spinifex littoreus

 

abration beach forest

 

beach forest

 

The role of forests and trees in protecting coastal areas against tsunamis

Hamzah Latief and Safwan Hadi

Abstract
Artificial structures can be constructed to protect coastal areas from natural hazards, such as storm surges and tsunamis. However, they can cause environmental problems and are expensive. Recently, mangroves and other types of coastal forests and vegetation have increasingly been reconsidered as possible alternatives to be used instead of, or in conjunction with, artificial structures. Mangrove forests are vegetated inter-tidal wetlands that provide goods and environmental services, including protection against wave impact and erosion. The dynamics of tidal flow and wind waves moving through vegetation, including mangroves, are well understood. Tsunamis, on the other hand, are transient waves with much longer wavelengths, such that tidal research cannot be readily applied. Yet, quantitative evaluations of mangroves and other coastal forests as protection against a tsunami’s potentially catastrophic impact are limited. This paper describes the effectiveness of forests in mitigating tsunami waves through hydraulic resistance (drag and impact force) owing to bottom roughness and vegetation. Numerical models to simulate the effectiveness of mangroves in reducing tsunami incursion are presented.

COASTAL



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