indonesia forest


Beach Forest is sparse forest growing along the beaches and foothills near the shore. Beach forest is composed of Barringtonia sp, Pongamia pinnata, Hisbiscus tiliaceus, Cordia subcordata, Callophylum inopyllum, Casuarina equasetifolia, and Terminalia catappa.

beach forest

Beach forest have two zone : Barringtonia zone and Ipomea pre-caspreae zone :

beach forest

Ipomea pre-caspreae


beach forest pictures

beach forest of indonesia

Spinifex littoreus

Spinifex littoreus


abration beach forest


beach forest


The role of forests and trees in protecting coastal areas against tsunamis

Hamzah Latief and Safwan Hadi

Artificial structures can be constructed to protect coastal areas from natural hazards, such as storm surges and tsunamis. However, they can cause environmental problems and are expensive. Recently, mangroves and other types of coastal forests and vegetation have increasingly been reconsidered as possible alternatives to be used instead of, or in conjunction with, artificial structures. Mangrove forests are vegetated inter-tidal wetlands that provide goods and environmental services, including protection against wave impact and erosion. The dynamics of tidal flow and wind waves moving through vegetation, including mangroves, are well understood. Tsunamis, on the other hand, are transient waves with much longer wavelengths, such that tidal research cannot be readily applied. Yet, quantitative evaluations of mangroves and other coastal forests as protection against a tsunami’s potentially catastrophic impact are limited. This paper describes the effectiveness of forests in mitigating tsunami waves through hydraulic resistance (drag and impact force) owing to bottom roughness and vegetation. Numerical models to simulate the effectiveness of mangroves in reducing tsunami incursion are presented.


Virgin Forest
Natural Forest
Primary Forest
Secondary Forest
Forest Degradation
Accessed Forest
Low Access Forest
Forest Cover
Selective Loging
Production Forest
Protection Forest
Conservation Forest
Conversion Forest
Limited Production Forest
Mangrove Forest
Beach Forest
Swamp Forest
Imperata cylindrica
Forest Burning