Sustaining Local Livelihoods through Carbon Sequestration Activities:
A search for practical and strategic approach
Daniel Murdiyarso

Engendering climate change

Gender refers to the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men. The concept of gender also includes the expectations held about the characteristics, aptitudes and likely behaviors of both women and men (femininity and masculinity). The roles and expectations are learned, changeable over time, and vary within and between cultures. Gender analysis has increasingly revealed how women’s subordination is socially constructed, and therefore able to change, as opposed to being biological and static. Climate change is an issue that cuts across all aspects of sustainable development, and must be addressed within the context of sustainable development.International treaties, such as UNFCCC, cannot be implemented as stand-alone initiatives but must be part of an integrated strategy for sustainable development. Gender equity is one of the prerequisites for sustainable development. Climate change is not gender neutral since it will have a disproportionate impact on poor women. The majority of the 1.5 billion people living in poverty on one dollar a day or less are women.

Engendering climate change

In addition, the gap between women and men caught in the cycle of poverty has continued to widen in the past decade, a phenomena commonly referred to as “the feminization of poverty. Worldwide, women earn on average slightly less than 50 % of what men earn. Assessment was made in the Forest Resources Management for Carbon Sequestration (FORMACS) Project in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Marriage at a very young age is considered a signifi cant barrier to development and gender equality. Most, if not all underage marriages are arranged by parents and involve a large bride-price, which leads to domination of man over women. As a result, the “paid” price hinders the role of women in decision-making. At a community level, it was suggested that a gender analysis of all budget lines and fi nancial instruments regarding Climate Change should be undertaken. Whereas at national level, gendersensitive criteria and indicators should be developed and applied in the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms and instruments, starting with instruments related to adaptation and vulnerability, as this is the area in which gender differences are most crucial and most visible.

Engendering climate change Engendering climate change

Source: Proceedings of Workshop on Carbon Sequestration and Sustainable Livelihoods
Editors : Daniel Murdiyarso & Hety Herawati

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