indonesia forest
 
 
 


CONVERSION FOREST

Forest that is designated (under an IPK license) for clearance and permanent conversion to another form of land use, typically a timber or estate crop plantation.

CONVERSION FOREST

May be generally defined as a reduction in tree density and/or increased disturbance to the forest that results in the loss of forest products and forest-derived ecological services. The FAO defines degradation as changes within the forest class (for example, from closed to open forest) that negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower production capacity. Common causes of forest degradation include selective felling, fuelwood collection, road building, and shifting cultivation. Human activities have had tremendous impact on modern forests. Since agriculture began about 11,000 years ago, large forest areas have been cleared for farms and cities. Beginning in the 1800's, great expanses of forest have also been eliminated because of logging and industrial pollution.

CONVERSION FOREST

 

CONVERSION FOREST

 

CONVERSION FOREST

 

CONVERSION FOREST

 

CONVERSION FOREST

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