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A Short Note on the Social Side of
the Modalities and Procedures for Afforestation and
Reforestation Projects under the CDM
by Claudio Forner

Policy structure of the CDM
The CDM is comprised of a set of decisions that regulate this instrument by creating several institutions (see Table 1) and by providing clear guidance on how projects should be implemented and assessed. As stated in the introduction, the policy skeleton for the CDM has been fi nalized and further related decisions will only provide clarifi cations or elaboration on specifi c aspects that may require such work. In fact, what is most relevant for forestry-related projects is the adoption of three decisions that constitute the CDM policy package (see Figure 1). The first of these decisions is the modalities and procedures (M&P) for the CDM, which were adopted through decision 17/CP.71. The M&P set the fundamental rules for the implementation of the CDM, which include the establishment of several institutions (see below), introduce basic concepts for the implementation of CDM projects (see Box 1) and outline the CDM project cycle (see Figure 2). It is important to note that, despite the fact that the CDM was introduced by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the modalities and procedures are a decision of the Conference of the Parties and, hence, it was already operational before the Protocol entered into force.

Reforestation Projects under the CDM

Reforestation Projects under the CDM

Reforestation Projects under the CDM
On the institutional side, the M&P have introduced public and private institutions that have responsibilities related to national and international issues of implementing projects (see Table 1). The following paragraphs provide a short description of the roles of each institution.
The CDM executive board supervises the CDM. In addition, the present note highlights the following roles: (i) it should recommend new modalities to COP/ MOP; (ii) it accredits designated operational entities; (iii) it supervises the validation, registration and monitoring of projects and the issuance of Certifi ed Emission Reductions (CERs), tCERs and lCERs; and (iv) it approves baseline and monitoring methodologies. For all these tasks, the executive board can establish panels or working groups to get assistance with, for example, technical and scientifi c issues on baseline assessments. Designated National Authorities, or DNAs, are the main institution of the CDM at the national level. DNAs are in charge of giving the green light to the implementation of projects by stating that they are in accordance with national regulations and that they contribute to sustainable development. In practice, DNAs play a substantial role in giving certainty to the CDM system by establishing clear national rules for the processing of projects, as well as by establishing a link with the international level. In addition, their role in promoting the CDM at the national and local level as well as in capacity building activities could further ensure the success of the CDM in the country they operate.

Reforestation Projects under the CDM

Designated Operational Entities (or DOEs) are independent organizations that serve as intermediaries between project participants and the CDM executive board to make sure that projects are in accordance with the modalities and procedures for the CDM. DOEs can be thought of as independent certifying entities (auditing) that receive documentation from project participants, assess it and send all the completed documentation to the board. This assessment is undertaken at two different stages:
• At the validation stage, where DOEs should receive documentation from project proponents on the design of a proposed project. DOEs should also revise new monitoring and baseline methodologies for those projects that are submitted with one.
• At the monitoring stage, where DOEs verify information on emission reductions or enhancement of removals from a project and certify them so the executive board proceeds with the issuance of tCERs or lCERs.

Reforestation Projects under the CDM Reforestation Projects under the CDM
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