indonesia forest
 
 
 


SWAMP FOREST

A swamp is a wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water. A swamp generally has a substantial number of hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodical inundation.[2] The two main types of swamp are "true" or forest swamps and "transitional" or shrub swamps. The water of a swamp may be fresh water, brackish water or seawater.

swamp forest

The calm waters in the forests are ideal breeding and nursery grounds for young fish and shrimps, while the aerial roots, lower trunks and mud surface usually support a varied fauna of oysters, snails, barnacles, crabs and other invertebrates. The upper part of the mangrove trees is an essentially terrestrial environment with a fauna of birds, mammals and insects. Mangroves are affected by the freshwater and nutrient supply which they receive from their catchment area, and on the other hand have a strong influence on the adjoining coastal waters and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass beds and tidal marshes. For example, they trap and stabilize sediment which might otherwise limit the growth of corals.

swamp forest

 

swamp forest hutan rawa

 

Water in Peat Swamps is Acidic

  • pH is a measure of the acidity or alkilinity of water and relates to the concentration of hydrogen ions;
  • a pH of 7.0 is neutral: below 7.0 is acidic, above 7.0 is alkaline; peat water is generally acidic with a pH of less than 4.5.

 

equaliptus deglupta

 

SWAMP FOREST

Peat swamp forests are an important component of the world’s wetlands – the dynamic link between land and water, a transition zone where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients and the energy of the sun combine to produce a unique ecosystem of hydrology, soils and vegetation. Peat swamp forests provide a variety of benefits in the form of forestry and fisheries products, energy, flood mitigation, water supply and groundwater recharge.

swamp forest

Peat swamp forests are waterlogged forests growing on a layer of dead leaves and plant material up to 20 metres thick. They comprise an ancient and unique ecosystem characterized by waterlogging, with low nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels in acidic water regimes. Their continued survival depends on a naturally high water level that prevents the soil from drying out to expose combustible peat matter. This harsh waterlogged environment has led to the evolution of many species of flora uniquely adapted to these conditions. Peat swamps are an important component of the world’s wetlands – the dynamic link between land and water, a transition zone where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients and the energy of the sun combine to produce a unique ecosystem of hydrology, soils and vegetation. These swamps provide a variety of goods and services, both directly and indirectly, in the form of forestry and fisheries products, energy, flood mitigation, water supply and groundwater recharge. Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by the acidic conditions and an absence of microbial activity. For example, peat formation can occur along the inland edge of mangroves where fine sediments and organic material become trapped in the mangrove roots. Peat is mostly soil with more than 65 per cent organic matter that is composed largely of vegetation including trees, grasses, mosses, fungi and various organic remains including those of insects and animals. Peat formation occurs when the rate of accumulation of organic material exceeds the rate of decomposition.

Peat Swamp Management

Sustainable use of wetlands aims to conserve the natural resources of a wetland while allowing exploitation that does not irreversibly destroy the wetland’s functions or its potential to support people and wildlife. This balance is difficult to achieve for peat swamp forests that are located in populated areas where the effects of economic activity impinge on the forest even though they may be designated as permanent forest reserves. Wetlands are vulnerable to unsustainable land-use practices, over-exploitation and the direct or indirect invasion of incompatible land uses and practices in adjacent buffer zones. This risk cannot be effectively mitigated until an integrated management plan is put in place and implemented with the wholehearted support of all stakeholders — both public and private.

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